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Physiology Mnemonics Top Collection for Study Easy

mnemonics
Best collection of human physiology mnemonics online. These will make your studying of  basics in medicine more easy.These are collected from various offline and online sources including text books.If you know any other physiology mnemonics please share via comments.






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Muscle spindle: origin of primary vs. secondary endings
 "1from 12 from 2":
Primary ending is from Group Ia.
Secondary ending from Group II.

Neurotransmitters in Sleep
"SAND"
 Serotonin (initiates sleep)
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Norepinephrine
Dopamine (causes arousal from sleep, i.e., wakefulness))

Glucagon: actions
' LKG2'
Lipolysis
Ketogenesis
Glycogenolysis
Gluconeogenesis


Pituitary hormones FLAGTOP:
Follicle stimulating hormone
Lutinizing hormone
Adrenocorticotropin hormone
Growth hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Oxytocin
Prolactin
Alternatively: GOAT FLAP with the second 'A' for Anti-diruetic
homone/vasopressin
· Note: there is also melanocyte secreting homone and Lipotropin, but they are
not well understood.


Adrenal cortex layers and products "GFind 
R
ex, Make Good Sex":
· Layers:
Glomerulosa
Fasiculata
Reticulata
· Respective products:
Mineralcorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Sex hormones
· Alternatively for layers: GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient
since adrenal glands are atop kidney).

Closure sequence of Heart valves
"Many Things Are Possible":
Mitral
Tricuspid
Aortic
Pulmonary



Balance organs Utricle and Saccule keep US
balanced.


VO2 normal value is 250 mL/min "V02" is the numbers,
just need to rearrange the order.
V is roman numeral for 5, so rearrange to 2V0, or 250mL/min.


PGI2 vs. TxA2 coagulation function TxAAggregates
platelets.
PGIInhibits aggregation.
· Note: full name of PGI2 is prostaglandin I2 or prostacyclin, full name of TxA2
is thromboxane A2.


Einthoven's Triangle: organization Corners are at RA (right
arm), LA (left arm), LL (left leg).
Number of L's at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [eg LL
is ++].
Sum of number of L's of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [eg LL-LA
is lead III].
For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the
triangle drawing that has all the negative signspositive angle
hemisphere contains only positive signs.




Adrenal cortex layers and products "Great Attire
AnFast Cars Are Really SexAttributes":
Granulosa secretes Aldosterone in response to Angiotensin
II.
Fasiculata secretes Cortisol in response to ACTH.
Reticularis secretes Sex steroids in response to ACTH.


Adrenal cortex layers and products "Get M
F
reakin' Gun Right Away":
Glomerulosa: Mineralcorticoid (aldosterone)
Fasiculata: Glucocorticoid (cortisol)
Reticularis: Androgens


Heart electrical conduction pathway "If patient's family are
all having Heart attacks, you must SAVe HIS KIN!"
SA node --->
AV node --->
His (bundle of) -->
PurKINje fibers



Cochlea: inner vs. outer hair cell function "Outer
cells are Out of the brain. Inner cells are Into the
brain":
Outer hair cells are motor efferents to amplify signal.
Inner hair cells are sensory afferents that actually pick up the sound.


Nervous stimulus: the 4 ways to classify "A MILD
stimulus":
Modality
Intensity
Location
Duration


Heart: -tropic definitions Lusitropic: loose
is relaxed. Definition: relax heart.
Inotropic: when heart wall contracts, moves inward.
Definition: contract heart.
Chronotropic: 'chrono-' means 'time'. Defintion: heart rate (of SA node
impulses).
Dromotropic: only one left, it must be conduction speed by default.



Osteoblast vs. osteoclast OsteoBlast Builds
bone.
OsteoClast Consumes bone.


Heart valves: closure sequence "Many Things 
A
re Possible":
Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic, Pulmonic


Oestrogen: functions OESTROGEN SUX:
Organ development (sex organs)
Endocrine: FSH and LH regulation
Secondary sex characteristics development
Tropic for pregnancy
Receptor synthesis (of progesterone, oestrogen, LH)
Osteoporosis decrease (inhibits bone reabsorption)
Granulosa cell development
Endocrine: increases prolactin secretion, but then blocks its effect
Nipple development
Sex drive increase
Uterine contractility increase
oXytocin sensitivity increase


Electrical conductivity of tissues "BCareful
TShock MBest Nerve":
In order of least conductive to most conductive:
Bones
Cartilage
Tendon
Skin
Muscle
Blood
Nerve


Prolactin and oxytocin: functions PROlactin
stimulates the mammary glands to PROduce milk.
Oxytocin stimulates the mammary glands to Ooze (release) milk.


Gut intrinsic innervation: myenteric plexus vs. submucosal plexus
function
 Myenteric: Motility.
Submucosal: Secretion and blood flow.


V/Q gradient in lung Infinity, a lung and a zero stack
nicely.
V/Q is lowest at bottom, highest at top.


Prostaglandins: dilatation abilities Prospectors keep
mineshafts open:
Mineshaft 1: Patent ductus ateriosus.
Mineshaft 2: renal afferent arteriole dilatation.


Hyperthyroidism: signs and symptoms THYROIDISM:
Tremor
Heart rate up
Yawning [fatigability]
Restlessness
Oligomenorrhea & amenorrhea
Intolerance to heat
Diarrhea
Irritability
Sweating
Musle wasting & weight loss

Skin vasoconstriction and temperature When the skin needs to
CONServe heat, the
blood vessels of the skin CONStrict.
When the skin is COld, the blood
vessels of the skin COnstrict.


Vitamin D: site of conversion Vitamin D is made in
the Dermis


Fluid compartments: volumes 12345:
12 liters of interstitial fluid
3 liters plasma volume and 30 liters inside cells
45liters total body water


Potassium: causes of potassium leaving cells A$$E$
Acidosis: H+ ions move in.
Starvation: catabolism of cells.
Stress: catabolism of cells (postoperative).
Exercise: catabolism of cells.
Sodium chloride lost: K+ replaces it and is then excreted.


Heart valves: placement of valves on standard heart anterior view
"Try before you Buy": When read across the page, the tricuspid
valve comes before the bicuspid valve.
Also, the lunar valves are near the top (in the sky), like the moon.


Aldosterone: regulation of secretion from adrenal cortex 
RNAs

Renin-angiotensin m echanism
Na concentraton in blood
ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
Stress


LH vs FSH: function in male LH: Leydig cells
stimulated to produce testosterone.
FSH: Spermatogenesis stimulated.


Alkalosis vs. acidosis: directions of pH and HCO3 ROME:
Respiratory= Opposite:
· pH is high, PCO2 is down (Alkalosis).
· pH is low, PCO2 is up (Acidosis).
Metabolic= Equal:
· pH is high, HCO3 is high (Alkalosis).
· pH is low, HCO3 is low (Acidosis).




Adrenal gland: functions ACTH:
Adrenergic functions
Catabolism of proteins/ Carbohydrate metabolism
T cell immunomodulation
Hyper/ Hypotension (blood pressure control)


MAO isoenzyme form locations · MAO-A in:
Adrenergic peripheral structures
Alimentary mucosa [intestine]
· MAO-B in:
Brain
Blood platelets


Carotid sinus vs. carotid body function carotid SinuS:
measures preSSure.
carotid bO2dy measures O2.


Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites "ABC"
of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c):
· Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain.
"HbF binds Forcefully":
· HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts
to left.
Stored blood is SOS:
· Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of
decrease in 2,3 BPG.
2,3 BPG binding site is BBC:
· BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb.
Myoglobin binding strength is MOM:
· Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.


Pepsin-producing cells "Chief of Pepsi-Cola":
· Chief cells of stomach produce Pepsin.


Hb-oxygen dissociation curve shifts: effect, location Left
shift: causes Loading of O2 in Lungs.
Right shift: causes Release of O2 from Hb.


Rods vs. cone function RoDDim light.
Cones: Color.


Pituitary: anterior hypophysis hormones FLATPiG:
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
ignore GH


Heart valves: sequence of flow TRIPS BIAS:
TRIcuspid
Pulmonary
Semilunar
BIcuspid
Aortic
Semilunar
Alternatively: "TRIPS, MI ASs!" (uses MItral instead of BIcuspid)


Adrenal cortex layers and products "Get your Facts
Right, Men are Glued to their Gonads":
Glomerulosa
Fasciculata
Reticularis
Mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Gonadocorticoids [androgens]


Intrinsic vs. extrinsic pathway tests "PeT PiTTbull":
PeTPT is for extrinsic pathway.
PiTTbull: PTT is for intrinsic pathway.


Compliance of lungs factors COMPLIANCE:
Collagen deposition (fibrosis)
Ossification of costal cartilages
Major obesity
Pulmonary venous congestion
Lung size
Increased expanding pressure
Age
No surfactant
Chest wall scarring
Emphysema
· All but L/A/E decrease compliance.


Diabetes Insipidous: diagnosing subtypes After a
desmopression injection:
Concentrated urine = Cranial.
No effect = Nephrogenic.


Progesterone: actions PROGESTE:
Produce cervical mucous
Relax uterine smooth muscle
Oxycotin sensitivity down
Gonadotropin [FSH, LH] secretions down
Endometrial spiral arteries and secretions up
Sustain pregnancy
Temperature up / Tit development
Excitability of myometrium down


Oxytocin-producing nucleus of hypothalamus Paraventricular
nucleus--> Parturition (childbirth is oxytocin's most important role).


Temperature control: cerebral regions "High Power
Air Conditioner":
Heating = Posterior hipothalamo [hypothalamus].
Anterior hipothalamo [hypothalamus] = Cooling.




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1 comments:

ayisha October 23, 2013 at 8:25 PM  

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